Empires lead to globalization and the unification of humankind in many ways but the most common one which is stated in the book through the example of the Roman Empire is through indoctrination. Once they conquered some area, the example Harari used was a part of Iberia called Numantia, the people are slowly converted to their conquers beliefs and culture. This happens over the course of generations when the culture of the newly conquered people is repressed. The new generation slowly loses their original culture because it is not taught to them by the older generations. Slowly but surely, the conquered area assimilates into the empire, and after say 4 generations, they are no longer barbarians but welcome citizens of the empire who will do anything to preserve that empire. We also see the rise of the unification of humankind through money. During the era of bartering for goods, the demand and fluctuation were too extreme for the common person to have an in depth knowledge of. Harari uses the example of an apple farmer wanting to buy a pair of boots. The apple farmer would have to rely on the boot maker wanting apples if he was to barter with him. Plus, if the shoe maker was having trouble getting hide for his shoes because of a shortage of leather, that would cause his “prices” to increase which means the apple farmer would have to know that the leather shortage was happening. With money, any can exchange money for anything they want in the future. As Harari calls it, a “universal medium”. How this lead to globalization and the unity of humankind was because money relies purely on the idea that it is valuable. If the entire population of the US said that the dollar was worthless, then it just becomes a piece of paper that have some green ink on it. Humankind unified behind the idea that money was valuable and because of that trust, it is. Religion also helps unify mankind because the belief in a god can make a bridge between cultural and geographical differences. It helps people find common ground to start to develop friendships and bonds that otherwise would not exist because of the possibility of hostility between the two nations or cities. It unites them under one “flag” per se.