Money, empires and religions are a part of the great unifying force surrounding humankind. In the early days of humanity there were many people spread out over vast areas all speaking different languages or dialects, eating different things, hunting different animals, worshiping different gods, and experiencing different lives. Today much of humanity believes in different iterations of the same ideas. A higher percentage of people are Christians than at any point in history, almost everyone believes in the power of money, and there isn’t a place that the legacies of the western empires’ don’t touch. Money unifies people by giving them a common language, it makes trade easier and allows for cooperation between people who know nothing about each other. Money creates trust between otherwise unrelated individuals. Empires throughout their long history have swallowed up many a culture and incorporated it into its own, if unable to eradicate it completely. When empires fall they leave behind a homogenized mass, a thing entirely different from the multitudes of cultures they started from and groups unable to return to their original identities. Empires make everyone under their rule more similar to each other, further contributing to the unification of human culture. Religions are the most interesting in my opinion. For most of their history religions were small and local, not caring too much about the influence of some supreme being, not caring about converting the world to the worship of that supreme being. In the last two millennium that has changed, and with it religious demographics have changed. Monotheists are now the largest sector of humanity, not only do they believe in one god, they believe that anyone who does not believe in their god is blasphemous and in need of conversion. This new belief is another contributing factor to the unification of humankind. The system of worship has gone from hundreds of thousands of small religions to twelve major religions that most of the world adheres to. Humankind is headed towards a singular culture, while at the same time diverging into many little subgroups.
The reason we study history, according to Harari, is to understand that the world we live in is limited by almost nothing. History gives us an idea of how random the world we live in is, how much human decisions influence our world. History helps us understand that nothing is impossible, and that the future is impossible to predict.