On page 172 Harari lays out three universal orders that he believes were the driving factors in pushing humans towards unification; they are “The Monetary Order, The Imperial Order, and The religious order” (Harari, 172). The monetary order is the idea that having a common currency allowed humans to trade goods and begin specializing in trades. Not everyone needed to farm because they could make goods and sell them for money which they could in turn use to buy food. The Imperial Order addresses the concept that “Empires have played a decisive part in amalgamating many small cultures into fewer bigger ones.” (Harari, 196). They do this through assimilation; it is easier for the ruling empire to have citizens with the same ideas and cultures so they spread their culture to lands they have conquered. The final order Harari discusses is the religious order. Harari defines religion as “a system of human norms and values that is founded on a belief in a superhuman order.” (Harari, 210). So how does this system of norms help human unification? The practice of converting, Christianity was the first faith that desired to spread the word about religion and in doing so spread a set of norms that would make humans even closer.
The value Harari sees in history is trying to figure out how humanity has progressed to where it is. In doing so we can have a better understanding of our present situation. This is a very valuable thing to do as it can help us better analyze problems and even help us solve problems. It is important to study the history of science as it explains how we have progressed technologically. Understanding this could play a huge role in future solutions for climate change, battling disease and pandemics, and even help us look at social issues through a new lens.