Money, empires, and religions lead to widespread cooperation across the globe because they were the three factors or “unifiers” in history that were able to bring people together them most. As Harari discusses, these were the first three things in history that allowed people to transcend the “us vs. them” mentality (Harari 172). Throughout history people were beginning to be more and more united, especially after the Cognitive Revolution and the beginning of the imagination. Money, empires or politics, and religion were the first three things that created their own broad fields for people to universally come together under. Money created a way for people to exchange skill and commodities. Without it, we would not be able to use the same products as someone in China such as an iPhone; then there would not be Apple, which is universally binding due to the fact that so many people us iPhones, and more importantly, that so many people buy iPhones. Empires unite people under a common ideology, structure, way of life in general, and code. They have also done a good job of taking many cultures and groups of people, and uniting them into one singular group. Religion unites people under values and a common identity. For anyone of any religion, whether its Islam, Christianity, Hinduism or even Atheism, they can be a world apart and still find connection through their system of belief.
As far as Harari’s quote on page 241, I think that he means history is not in flavor of anyone or anything. There is not necessarily a reason for the way things have played out, just that they have and happen to have somehow ended up in a linear fashion. History is important to study because, in reality, we do not understand it. We might understand what happens and when and where, but it is often difficult for us to conceptualize its repercussions and future meaning. More specifically, we need to understand the history of science and technology because of the same reason. We do not know why an invention will pop up, or why an ideology will change. What we do know is that it is important to understand how the courses of history operate, and that our actions in the far past, even if not seemingly big, can have huge affects on the future.