The worldwide expansion of trade was massive to the contribution to the unification of humankind. The Columbian Exchange comes to mind as a specific force behind this. Specifically, money, empires, and religion were used directly during this time. Money was certainly a motivation during this time, and Spain’s collection of gold is part of what made it such a powerful empire. This desire for power is what led to a colonialistic frame of mind. While somewhat of a dark period of colonizing whatever Eurpopeans could get their hands on, it is undoubtedly an important part of history and led to many unifying interactions between humans. Religion was also a driving force behind humans traveling across the globe, particularly with the spread of Chrisitianity.
By the quote on page 241, Harari means that everything as we know exists today for a reason, and came from some particular event in the past. Harari can see value in looking to the past not for specific events but rather the structure for how things are developed as a whole. In studying the history of science and technology, it gives us context for how the technology we have today was created, and gives us insight on how we can continue to develop in the future. Even things that seem like they have no consequence today may end up impacting the future in larger ways than we could ever imagine. For that reason, it is important that we study history and take cues for what kinds of things might be important to us in the distant future.