Money, empires, and religions led to widespread cooperation across the globe because they were all universal things that everyone in the world could understand. With money, it encouraged more trade and cooperation between people. It also established a common way to measure the worth of products, which made trade easier between different peoples. The monetary system paved the way for empires to be forged as the people within the empire used a common measure of trade. With the establishment of empires, leaders could spread and claim more people to join. Even if those who were conquered by an empire such as the Roman Empire, they would eventually assimilate and become a Roman themselves, making the empire bigger and people more cooperative. By incorporating more people into an empire it led to the spread of religion. What kept people from leaving an empire was sharing a common belief in a myth or story (i.e. the story of Christ, The Buddha, etc.).
Harari sees value in studying history because we learn more about how we ended up where we are. By understanding how we as a species got here, we open up many possibilities for what the future holds. It’s also a good idea to know the background of an event to get an idea for why what happened did so. This is great for studying the history of science and technology. Many cases in history in these subjects show that the progression of science and tech happened when humans changed the course of history. Oftentimes, new science and tech are discovered because humans needed a way to improve their lives, and that new discovery changed how history progressed.