In essence, widespread cooperation began when similar cultural norms started to form in different areas across the world, most importantly in the areas of money, empires, and religion. In the past, people used trading to acquire the goods they needed because there wasn’t a standardized form of currency. Then the idea of money was introduced, which gave everyone a standard way to pay for the things they needed. This allowed for cooperation in that there was more accessibility of goods, in addition to more people relating over the concept of money. Empires were also instrumental in unifying the masses. This was done through imperialization and the expanding of empires. Powerful societies would take over/colonize others and enforce their cultural norms onto their new subjects. Lastly, religion united people through shared ideology within the same religions, moral rules and “laws”, and most importantly the idea of global religion. Harari puts it as, “In fact, monotheism. . . is a kaleidoscope of monotheist, dualist, polytheist, and animist legacies, jumbling together under a single divine umbrella.” (Harari 223). Even though all religions are different, there can be undertones of different ones within all of them. With Harari’s quote from page 241, I believe that he’s saying that everything around us has become an imagined order, and that we study history to understand the imagined orders that we’ve created.
I think that this part puts a lot of pieces of the human-existence puzzle together. When you think of religion and money now, they’re considered divisive and not symbolic of togetherness. I think Harari implies that the creation and development of those constructs laid a solid foundation for unification, and now that is the default, even if religion and money aren’t as unifying as they used to be.