Money, empires, and religions led to ‘the unification of humankind’ because they all influenced a vast majority of people across the globe. As “…empires grew and trade intensified…global unification occurred…” (Harari, p. 170). Money enhanced trade because it is “…a universal medium of exchange that enables people to convert almost everything into almost anything else” and because it “…is the most universal and most efficient system of mutual trust ever devised” (Harari, p. 179 & 180). Money transcended cultural barriers allowing everyone to trade with each other and, therefore, encouraging human unification. Empires “…rule over a significant number of distinct peoples, each possessing a different cultural identity and separate territory” (Harari, p. 190). Empires contributed to ‘the unification of humankind’ because numerous cultures were brought under the rule of one overarching empire and its culture. This led to people practicing their own culture and the culture of the empire; “Ideas, people, goods, and technology spread more easily within the borders of an empire than a politically fragmented region” (Harari, p. 197). Finally, religion contributed to ‘the unification of humankind’ because religion supports imagined orders and “…assert[s] that our laws…are ordained by an absolute and supreme authority… [helping to] place at least some fundamental laws beyond challenge, thereby ensuring social stability” (Harari, p. 210).
What Harari is saying on page 241 is that, by studying history, we understand how our world came to be what it is today, and we can use that knowledge to make the right decision when faced with the possibilities before us. By studying the history of science and technology we see how they are interconnected throughout our entire past. Understanding this connection allows us to effectively decide how to progress in the fields of science and technology and better understand the risks certain choices pose.