Becoming less dumb-dumb led to the invention of gum-gum

70,000-30,000 years ago humans were “just as intelligent, creative, and sensitive as we are.” (Harari, p. 21) How did they get there though? Shortly before humans were sailing across the ocean they were still hunting with primal tools and foraging. Due to one small mutation in the Tree of Knowledge, humans were all of the sudden advancing off the charts. These rapid developments resulted in flexible languages that not only allowed for communication within tribes, but allowed humans to understand how to communicate with different humans and that there was benefit to that. Mainlined communication allowed for these early people to effectively share information that could save and preserve multiple generations. 

The idea of an “imagined order” is that a large group of people collectively believe in something, that may or may not be true, because believing in it allows those humans to feel connected thus creating a more unified community. Harari talks about how “Most human cooperation networks have been geared towards oppression and exploitation.” (Harari, p. 104) One example of this is during the Roman empire slaves were forced to build amphitheaters for the wealthy to then watch those slaves fight to the death for entertainment. This forced labor created a hierarchy between laborers and the wealthy; however, it also created a strong tie between slaves who were in cooperation networks that ultimately resulted in their survival. As human minds advanced they were able to create these hierarchies and imagined orders, thus resulting in relationships and bonds with other humans over power and hardship alike.

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