The Great Man” model is the minimalistic explanation of history. There are many factors greater and lesser than man that affect how history plays out. The Kuhnian Model explains that people accept a certain model until there are data point or anomalies that cannot be explained. Then a bold person will research until he can explain the anomalies. Finally, a new model will be accepted. The ecosystem model shows that all things are connected in some way and they all influence each other.
Johnson uses the paradigm shift method to explain Priestley’s discovery of oxygen. He found a set of data that didn’t match his assumptions and he tried to figure out why. In this case everything died in the trough except plants, but with plants in the trough animals could live longer. To me this is a lot like working with horses, there are methods that work great for some horses where other horses need something different to stimulate their brains. The different breeds respond differently to different pressures and rewards. There are some horses with trauma resulting from past experiences. The whole point of the world is trying to figure out how to manipulate them to get the results you wanted or disprove your hypothesis.