Starting off with the progressive history model or progressive futurism, it is essential a shift in thinking that we are only at the beginning of scientific discovery, and not the end. This is in sharp contrast to the past hundreds of years in European history, as for several hundred years scientific innovation went dark I.e the dark ages. However, Progressive futurism acts as if there is an end to scientific invasion, as the use of the mountain climbing metaphor implies an end point. In addition it greatly focuses on the individual’s ability to innovate, citing the inventions by Ben Franklin as opposed to the innovations of humanity as a whole.
The second model is called paradigm shift. This model believes that innovation of any kind, whether it be centered around technology, theology or philosophy will happen in spurts in a condensed area. The idea is that in this area a new way of thinking allows others to start asking similar questions and build off of it. Ironically this can cause a narrow world view, as the people within these paradigm shifts adhere to this new way of thinking and are unable to connect it with other shifts within this model.
The ecosystem model is a more big picture one. While this model focuses on earth sciences, its central point is that all things are connected. This means that in order to understand one field of study, say geology, you must also look at several others, as one field is to narrow in the grand scheme of things. However , this model has far reaching implications that go above the Earth sciences in explaining how things are connected. Things like history and economics are related in more ways than you think, and understanding one could provide greater insight into the other. These connections are not just one field to another, but as the name of the model implies, they are an ‘ecosystem’ as in they are all connected to one another to varying degrees.